Crops failed all over the Valley of Mexico due to bad weather. These were traditional campaigns whereby a new Aztec tlatoani proved his worth following his accession by conquering regions and acquiring tribute and prisoners for sacrifice. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The fighting was very fierce The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Aztec & Maya: The Definitive Chronicle... Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control, The Aztec Eagles: The Forgotten Allies of the Second World War, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Eventually a huge force set out, The city was given twenty days to consider their request. Last modified March 18, 2015. These four had the titles of tlacochcalcatl, tlaccetacatl, tillancalqui, and etzhuanhuanco. loudly to frighten the foe. Messengers were dispatched to cities throughout the Empire to gather soldier for the war. a great noise, stamping their feet, chanting, an whistling The conquered city Here all order was lost and battle became a series of independent duels where warriors tried to capture their opponent alive. no war. The earliest known example of a xochiyaoyotl was in 1376 CE against the Chalca, a conflict which, perhaps unsurprisingly, developed into a full-scale war. While a sacrifice was considered an honorable death, no doubt most warriors would prefer to avoid it. A favourite hunting ground for these military expeditions was the eastern Tlaxcala state and cities such as Atlixco, Huexotzingo and Cholula. rather than kill them . Parcels of land were also distributed to nobles and elite warriors. This included A historian of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, he is a publisher of popular history, a podcaster, and online course creator. Other scholars see darker political aspects to these ritual wars: to demonstrate Aztec might, to wear down the enemy through attrition and to allow Aztec leaders to subjugate their own people through fear of losing loved ones. google_ad_slot = "3252765963"; Indeed, the first act of this blood-thirsty war god was to kill without mercy his rebellious sister Coyolxauhqui and his 400 siblings, the Centzonhuitznahuac and Centzonmimizcoa. They signaled to each other Generally, the real price of defeat was essentially agreements to pay regular tributes in both goods and people to their new masters. If the city still refused to join the Aztecs, the war began. In mythology, the dismembered bodies of Coyolxauhqui and the 400 became the moon and stars respectively. day chosen by priest as the luckiest day Retrieved from Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Human sacrifices were regularly made to Huitzilopochtli at his temple atop the great pyramid, the Templo Mayor, at the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.