After reorganizing the new Army of the Potomac, McClellan failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia in his Peninsula Campaign and retreated after attacks from newly appointed Confederate General Robert E. At the height of the Vietnam War, Zinn flew to Hanoi with Father Daniel Berrigan to negotiate the release of Air Force Maj. Norris Overly, Navy Ensign David Matheny, and Capt. [124] Most were unskilled workers who quickly found jobs in mines, mills, and factories. [267], "American history" redirects here. Yet where my proclivities align with or depart from Zinn’s is beside the point. Major General George B. McClellan was put in charge of the Union armies. Progressives implemented antitrust laws and regulated such industries of meat-packing, drugs, and railroads. Jazz became popular among the younger generation, and thus the decade was also called the Jazz Age. The Allies – the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, China, as well as Poland, Canada, and other countries – fought the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. This essay is excerpted from Sam Wineburg’s Why Learn History (When It’s Already on Your Phone), out now from University of Chicago Press. Large numbers of European immigrants (especially from Germany and Scandinavia) took up low-cost or free farms in the Prairie States. This concept was born out of "A sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example ... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven". He picks up on a lot that is missed in traditional history books that concern themselves with great men or great deeds. The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest were likely the most affluent Native Americans. argue, "The Republican party, nationally, moved from right-center toward the center in 1940s and 1950s, then moved right again in the 1970s and 1980s." Until the day he died in 2010, Howard Zinn lived a life of commitment and unstinting devotion to the things he believed in. Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860 on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery. The Supreme Court's 1857 decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional; angry Republicans said this decision threatened to make slavery a national institution. [230] After his election, Obama reluctantly continued the war effort in Iraq until August 31, 2010, when he declared that combat operations had ended. The Kennedy clan brought a new life and vigor to the atmosphere of the White House. Many distinct cultural and political nations developed there, but they all shared certain beliefs traditions, and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol. The national government emerged much stronger, and because of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, it gained explicit duty to protect individual rights. [71][72], The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere in the Americas. [249][250], From 2009 to 2010, the 111th Congress passed major legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, informally known as Obamacare, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act[254] and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which were signed into law by President Obama. In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol were prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment, Prohibition. The plantations were highly profitable, due to the heavy European demand for raw cotton. [164] This was carried out through the Lend-Lease agreements. His time in office was marked by such notable events as the acceleration of the United States' role in the Space Race, escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the jailing of Martin Luther King Jr. during the Birmingham campaign. [202], The OPEC oil embargo marked a long-term economic transition since, for the first time, energy prices skyrocketed, and American factories faced serious competition from foreign automobiles, clothing, electronics, and consumer goods. Largely invisible to the casual reader are the moves and strategies that Zinn uses to bind evidence to conclusion, to convince readers that his interpretations are right. Following Obama's reelection in November 2012, Congress passed the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 – which resulted in an increase in taxes primarily on those earning the most money. [236], In May 2011, after nearly a decade in hiding, the founder and leader of Al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, was killed in Pakistan in a raid conducted by U.S. naval special forces acting under President Obama's direct orders. The economy basically recovered by 1936, but had a sharp, short recession in 1937–38; long-term unemployment, however, remained a problem until it was solved by wartime spending.[161]. Into the Jaws of Death: The Normandy landings began the Allied march toward Germany from the west. [38], The American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775 when the British tried to seize ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had finally prevailed. The owners were never compensated. Lee's smaller army won at the Battle of Fredericksburg late in 1862, causing yet another change in commanders. Though the nation lost more than 400,000 military personnel and civilians,[180] the U.S. mostly prospered untouched by the devastation of war that inflicted a heavy toll on Europe and Asia. Most of the relief programs were dropped after 1938 in the 1940s when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the Conservative Coalition. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war in 1848. [17], After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations, the first successful English settlement was established in 1607. Dudes like that assume that college students are just vacant, empty canisters that professors fill with information, when a humanities education takes almost exactly the opposite approach. The American Civil War was the world's earliest industrial war. To support his programs Hamilton created a new political party – the first in the world based on voters – the Federalist Party. The Indian threat to expansion into the Midwest was permanently ended. [8] From there, they migrated along the Pacific Coast and into the interior and constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used only seasonally in the summer to hunt and fish, and in the winter to gather food supplies. [76] The Trail of Tears resulted in approximately 2,000–8,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perishing along the way. Skilled workers banded together to control their crafts and raise wages by forming labor unions in industrial areas of the Northeast. The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of whom had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. It permitted voters to decide on the legality of slavery in each territory, and allowed Douglas to adopt neutrality on the issue of slavery. Originally Answered: Is A People's History of the United States entirely accurate? Wow, a course like you're describing is something I would have really cherished in college. [112] From 1890 to 1908, southern states effectively disfranchised most black voters and many poor whites by making voter registration more difficult through poll taxes, literacy tests, and other arbitrary devices.