South America is home to the most diverse ecosystems in the world, and across history had some of the greatest cultural and ethnic diversity. Archaeologist Dr Jago Cooper reveals the extraordinary history of some of South America's ancient civilisations. The continents of North and South America were 'discovered' by the European civilizations in the late 15th century AD, but people from Asia arrived in the Americas at least 15,000 years ago. They also excelled in mathematics, art, architecture, and astronomy. The most famous of these civilizations is the Incan Empire. Many of the ceramics were examples of a single spout, loop-handle bottle, featuring an anthropomorphic-avian (bird) face at the spout base. Several theories have been posited as to why the Nazca Lines exist, but the true meaning of the geoglyphs remains a mystery. The precious metal objects found in Middle Sicán sites reveal the unprecedented scale of their production and use, as well as the class hierarchy inherent in Sicán culture. It appeared to be a predecessor to the related faces of the Sicán Deity and the Sicán Lord of the Middle Sicán culture. At the time of the drought, the Sicán Deity, so closely tied to the ocean and water in general, was at the center of Sicán religion, and appeared in most major artistic motifs. Some sites relied on marine resources, such as fish and precious shells. During the Spanish occupation of Peru in the early 17th century, colonists redirected the waters of the Moche River to run past the base of the Huaca del Sol in order to facilitate the looting of gold artifacts from the temple, which caused massive erosion. The religious capital city and cultural center of the Middle Sicán is referenced as the Sicán Precinct, which is defined by a number of monumental rounds. Jan 2, 2020 - Explore carrie sheely's board "Civilizations South America", followed by 317 people on Pinterest. Their hunter-gatherer lifestyle can be traced back to 7000 BCE, but the first permanent villages were built around 2600 BCE. In … Shrines (called huacas) developed in each district across Chimor, dedicated to an associated legend, deity, or cult of belief, depending on the region. Huacas were the centerpieces for ritual sites and used as administrative centers and palaces for Moche culture. The Early Sicán culture is known for the highly polished, black-finish ceramics found in the La Leche Valley. The Moche also wove textiles, mostly using wool from vicuñas and alpacas. Then explain why you think civilizations that never had contact with one another had so much in common. Prayers for fish and protection against drowning were also offered. Likely the consumption of human blood and possibly flesh as a part of a renewal ritual. This is the Chavin civilization. Tumbaga, a thin sheet of low-karat gold alloy, was used to wrap ceramic vessels for the lower elites, while the upper elites had high-karat gold alloys. The Nazca (or Nasca) lived near the arid southern coast of Peru from 100 BCE to 800 CE. Get the plugin now. These rituals included: The Moche may have also held and tortured the victims for several weeks before sacrificing them, with the intent of deliberately drawing blood. The Moche are well known for their art, especially their naturalistic and articulate ceramics, particularly in the form of stirrup-spout vessels. Despite the fact that everyone immediately identified Egypt with Pyramids, the truth is that there exists an ancient civilization in South America so advanced, that it built monuments and pyramids before the Egyptians.. Caral is believed to be one of the first sophisticated ancient civilizations that developed in South America. The Inca Empire was a superpower that was centered on the western coast of South America. Civilizations in North and South America. South America civilization dates back to 3000 BC, the same time period ancient cities were rising in Egypt, China and India. The early Latin American civilizations consist of four main cultures, Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. The Chimú lived in modern-day Peru from 900–1470 CE. Bear in mind, the Inca empire only spans a small portion of South America, but they are one of the only mythologies we know about from ancient South American civilizations. But others such as Chavin, Paracas and the Nazca civilizations have for example created the mysterious Nazca lines in Peru. Maya. This resource is intended to help introduce your students to the ancient South American culture of the Incas. Both possessed divine kings, both were fractured by internal dissent, and both quickly succumbed to the Spanish onslaught. The Moche. The early Latin American civilizations consist of four main cultures, Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. The construction of these mounds required considerable material, manpower, and time, indicating the Sicán elite’s control and monopoly over the society’s resources. At about 1,000 A.D, the Lima culture began to take shape along the central Peruvian coast, the Lima are known for their painted adobe buildings. This religious ideology served as the underpinning of the social hierarchy of the theocratic state. Flashcards. Write. These civilizations ruled the area for many years, and flourished greatly in their own different ways. In a society where tools were created by hand, sculpture became a significant part of early South American civilizations. Several theories suggest skull manipulation created an ethnic identity, formed the individual into a social being, or may have illustrated social status. Access south american civilizations information and used as administrative centers and palaces for Moche culture flooding leaving... 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